Preheat the oven to 400ºF. In a large cast iron or other oven safe skillet, heat olive oil over medium heat until shimmering.
Add garbanzo beans and garlic and season with salt and pepper. Shake the pan or stir to coat everything evenly in oil.
Transfer the pan to the hot oven and bake, stirring once or twice, until the beans are lightly browned and crispy, 15-20 minutes.
Remove the pan from the oven and add the balsamic vinegar. Stir the chickpeas until the vinegar has completely coated them and thickened.
While the chickpeas are cooking, bring a large pot of water to a boil. Cook the linguini according to package directions.
When the pasta is done cooking drain it and return it to the pot. Toss the pasta with the amount of pesto you prefer until completely coated. Transfer pasta to plates and top with chickpeas and Parmesan cheese if desired.