Preheat the oven to 350ºF. Grease a 9x9 baking pan with butter. Dust with flour and tap out the excess.
In a small saucepan over low heat, melt the butter and chocolate, stirring frequently. Remove from the heat and let cool to room temperature.
Meanwhile, in a large bowl, beat the eggs, sugar, and vanilla until smooth. Add the cooled chocolate mixture and mix until well combined.
Stir the flour and salt into the chocolate mixture. Mix until well combined and no trace of the dry ingredients remains.
Pour half of the batter evenly in the prepared baking pan. Set the pan aside.
Unwrap the caramels and put them in a microwaveable bowl with the water. Microwave in 60 second intervals until the caramels have melted into a thick liquid. Remove the bowl from the microwave and let cool for 5 minutes. Whisk the caramel with a fork to get a consistent texture. Pour the caramel over the batter in the pan. Don't go all the way to the edges and don't worry about covering every spot. Place the pan in the refrigerator for 20 minutes, allowing the caramel to set.
Remove the pan from the refrigerator and spread the remaining half of the batter evenly over the caramel using a spatula. Let the pan sit for 15 minutes to come to room temperature before putting it in the oven.
Bake for 35 minutes or until the brownies begin to pull away from the sides of the pan.
Remove from the oven and cool on a rack for 1 hour.